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Goshala (Cow Shelter):

        Your letter states that your father was a very popular philanthropist and affectionate to cows.

        He was fond of rearing cows and an ardent follower of Gomatha from his childhood.You state that there were several cows inyour house. Your observation is that your father was deeply keen in protecting cows. Cows and Bulls or Oxen are useful for man in various ways. Primarily the cows give milk which forms a good nutritious food for children as well as pregnant mothers and the elderly. Since milk is associated with motherhood wherein a mother feeds her infant with breast milk, cows are considered as equal to mothers hence the name Gomatha.

        The milk from cows and buffaloes is required to make coffee or tea and also to prepare various kinds of beverages and sweets. Milk is used in the preparation of curd, butter, ghee and cheese. Cooks require milk when it comes to preparation ofcertain kinds of snacks, chocolates, puddings, ice-cream, salads etc. Bulls have been used in ploughing fields, pulling carts with loads of merchandise and in milling oil from coconuts. For turning water wheels and pulleys the bulls and oxen are harnessed on to the stakes. Therefore the economy of the community depends to a significant extent on the proper utilization of the cows and bulls or buffaloes.

        Animal husbandry and veterinary clinics are an essential part of maintaining large number of cows and bulls. By establishing research laboratories to develop or improve care and maintenance of cows and bulls the state administration can providehelp and support to the economy.

Religion, Caste and Cows:
        In many Christian countries there are farmers who maintain large herds of cattle and produce milk and milk products for sale and distribution to the citizens. There are also piggeries, fouls farms mainly for chicken, goat and sheep farms, fish farms etc. A healthy disciplined scientific diary or farm with adequate water and power supply in a community with help and support from the local government can provide abundant food to the citizens provided the people are Christians or Moslems. There are large herds of selected breeds of well-fed cattle primarily for production of red meat in many Western countries having a majority of people willing to eat such meat.

        Apart from the economy and food adequacy, in the Christian or Moslem countries and even in Buddhist countries like Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand or parts of Indonesia, the animals like chicken, goat, sheep, cow and buffalo are presented as gifts and dowry in marriage by the bride or the groom. In India we Braahmanas are familiar with the word Godana or donation of Cow, commonly to priests on special occasions such as the funerals. Shraaddha ceremonies which include facilitating the souls of the dead to reach Vaikuntah mandate that all paraphernalia that the dead were maintaining in their house andall movable assets that they possessed could be sent to them by transferring them symbolically to the priests and other Braahmanas that attend the ceremonies. and later the Braahmanas recite Mantra(s) to spiritually consign the gifts to the dead after souls reach heaven. The dead souls as well as the Braahmanas are interested only in Cows and not in foul and meat and therefore other animals are not donated in the Shraaddha ceremonies.

        Braahmana class of people were known to follow the principle of non-violence from pre-historic days. There is a controversy regarding the food habits of inhabitants in the Vedic period in India because not all were Braahmanas and Hindu non-Braahmanas were not bound by the rule of vegetarianism. It is not difficult to imagine that there were Braahmanas in the Vedic period who practiced non-violence and followed the diktats of the Vedas and also that the non-Braahmana Hindus regularly practiced sacrificing cattle, foul, and jungly animals in the pre-historic period in India.

        Before Christ, all people living in this so-called Jambu Dweepa i.e. India were referred to as Hindus by the outsiders.The Hindus then followed either Sanaathana Dharma, Buddhism or Jainism and worshipped any God that they considered worthy. Among the animals, the Cobra serpent, Naaga was picked out as godly and many Puraanas and scriptures got written amplifying the virtues of Naaga and listing the multiple benefits of worshipping the Serpent God.

        Serpent worship is prevalent widely even now among our own GSB people.Bhootha(s) are deities worshipped by Hindus since long.Cow had attained the God status along with various other natural, living and non-living, entities and Ashwatha tree is one belonging to the Sasya (vegetation) world that draws attention of solution -seekers. When people find no solution to their worldly problems they seek help from their favourite God which could be a Cow, a Naaga shrine, an Ashwatha tree or Bhootha shrines.

Cattle and the Economy: A man or a family that owns herds of animals is as rich as a man or a family owning gold, diamond or silver jewelry. There were cattle thieves who lived by stealing cattle from one herd and selling them to another herd thatwould be willing to buy the stolen live-stock. A farmer who can breed large meaty cattle in large numbers on a vast farm stretching from one horizon to the other can only be a rich and wealthy person. Cow-boys were armed with guns to keep a watch on the large herds that were grazing on vast stretches of green meadows in the Western countries. Since there were cattle of all ages and fed for different uses, the herdsman would not find it a problem to first use and then dispose off his individual calves, milching cows, young bulls, and old or sickly animals. There were people who sold animals to slaughter houses and also people who slaughtered animals and sold the processed meat in separate lots to consumers.

        The price of meat, fish or foul productsare much higher than that of the cereals, pulses, potato, or other vegetable products. Having meat in every meal is consideredas demonstrating a higher standardof living. Slaughtering cows and bulls inautomated abattoir is a common practicein these meat-eating localities.

        Processing rice, wheat, pulses and other produce from a farm and packing them inbags followed by transport to markets inlorries, trucks, trains or ship is observed bypeople during day time and in the open.But the slaughter-houses are closed buildings and the process of killing the chicken or cows is undertaken away from view of the public. Yet the display of packaged portions of chicken or meat in markets could not be hidden.

        The fact that a cow or a bull is a pious animal and that a cow delivers a calf once in 12 months makes them easy for domestication.The importance of a cow or buffalo lies in its ability to produce more milk than the calf can consume. This extra milk is available for easy milching by men or women.

        Women get used to milking a cow easily and a cow gets friendly easily with its milkmaid. Man has realized that keeping cows at home for the supply of milk for food is very useful. In the past any farm would have a cow-shed in which at least twomilch cows were kept. The calf was also kept and fed as long as the cow gave milk. Once the cow became unproductive and milkless both the calf and the cow would be sold to whoever was willing to buy them without any conditions.

        If the buyer was a Moslem then the cowas well as the calf could face the prospectof being slaughtered for meat. If the buyer was a dairy owner regardless to which heor she belonged then the cow would be kept in his farm and allowed to mate witha bull there to deliver a calf later.

        Among Hindus (Indians) there are many like me who never had fish, foul or meat in their diet. Among Hindus there are also a large percentage of people who are fond of fish, foul or meat and have been traditionallynon-vegetarians. Having meat in the menuis considered to be a special dish served during family celebrations, festivals and special occasions among many SCs STs and OBCs among Hindus.‘Baadina Oota’ is a feast arranged following a wedding among the SCs and OBCs and must include a dish of a sheep or goat slaughtered especially for the purpose.

        Any cow that dies in a cow-shed of a Braahmana house will be given free of cost to a person who will carry away the carcass and keep it out of sight of the Braahmana folks. Men belonging to the lowest castes were always ready and eager to carry away a freshly dead cow from a Braahmanas' cow-shed because he could use the meat as food. Other portions of the dead cow such as the skin, horns and bones were used to make various consumer items such as foot-wear or knife handles.

        Therefore there are very few instances, either in the past or in the presentdays, of cattle that die a natural deathby old age and get buried or cremated.

        A cow which delivered a calf recently would be bought by families for providing milk to them for the next 8 to 12 months. The calf would be fed with minimal milk from its mother and rest of the milk would bemilked by the milkmaid or another personfor house-to-house supply. The price of thecow and the calf depended upon whether the cow will yield milk and on the quantityof milk expected. Buffalos are also treated similarly.

        There were many cottage dairies scattered around in a town where the houses would be supplied with milk daily at a cost. The price of the milk depended upon the cost of the fodder, oil-cake and convenience of letting the cows graze in the grass fields.

        My grandmother and aunts were doing such dairy business for a living in Mangalore in the 1930s and 1940s. They were keeping between 3 and 5 cows in the small shed attached to our house. They would milk the cows and place the milk in small covered containers with handles. They would add a small amount of water depending upon the yield of milk for that day in order to make it available to all their customers. The milk containers were carried by young boys or girls to different customers; restaurants or houses in the locality. This dairy business was the main livelihood for many families.

Beliefs and Practices: It is widely believedamong many folks in India that Gods and Goddesses are pleased if a cock or a hen iskilled in front of the icon and the blood of the sacrificed animal is sprinkled around. When the God or Goddess is of particular power and importance a larger animal is killed allegedly to pacify or please the deity.For how many years in India and Nepal the practice of beheading cows, bulls and buffaloes in front of icons in temples and other religious sites, has been in practice is anybody's guess and for how many years the kings and generals have hunted all kinds of animals in forests and later butchered them and cooked them for serving in the feasts is also anybody's guess. I have personally witnessed the be-heading of a young sheep in front of Kaali Idol in Kolkata Kaali Mandir.

        Goddess Kaali is deemed to be Gowri, Paarvathi, Chamundeshwari, Bhagavathi, Bhadrakaali, etc.

        It was about 2500 years ago that Buddha preached non-violence to Indians and subsequently or before him the Jainsaint Mahaveera preached a more stringent non-violent religion known as Jainism.

        Both Jainism and Buddhism spread to the entire world causing very uneasy conditions to kings and generals who were fond of fish, foul and meat dishes. Yet the preaching of Mahaveera and Buddha were so strong and powerful that even the strongest of the ruler or general was unable to ignore them.

        The religions of Non-violence got strengthened and spread widely and Braahmana class of people became a dominant class. We can assume that hunting the forest animals also became less glorified than before. A large number of people converted themselves into Jains and practiced total non-violence and vegetarianism which continues even to thisday.

Vegetarianism: The food habits of people varies according to the availability of food items. When a man becomes hungry he looks for food. In established societies the food intake of man is divided into a breakfast, mid-morning snack, an early afternoon lunch, an evening snack and a dinner variously referred to as night-meal or supper. This constant supply of meals allows people to engage inother activities without wasting time to find food each time one gets hungry.

        For wild animals in the forests, beggars on the streets, the street dogs, birds, squirrels, pigeons, crows, eagles andother similar animals and birds there is no provision for regular supply of food like the human beings and they have to search and hunt for their food.

        In the forests the ferocious tigers hunt the deer or foxes. The elephants eat soft and tender plants such as bamboo and banana. The birds constantly look for worms and other small animals while squirrels and such other tree-dwelling animals look for ripened fruit and fresh twigs for food. The snakes eat the frogs or small rats and mice. But the snakes have to go in search of these small animals in order to get their food for the day. The snakes come out in the darkness of nights and so do the rats and mice.

        Cats are domestic animals and the cats also look for rats and mice. Pets like dogs and cats are given regular mealsby their keepers.

        Beggars begin to stand on street corners or roam from house to house asking for alms. They will buy food in food stalls with the small change that they are offered by passers-by.

        In the villages the beggars would start a small fire to cook the grains that were offered to them by people living in those villages. In some places such as temples and public dormitories, free meals are provided to any decently dressed person whether or not he or she is a beggar or a brigand or a genuine devotee or a tourist that arrived to visit those sites. In rich Western countries there are so-called half-way homes where meals are served to people without question once or twice a day.

        Any hungry person can stand in the line andget a bowl-full soup to eat or drink in established societies in churches and temples, and occasionally a piece of bread and a morsel of porridge. Civilized world has provision to feed the inhabitants provided each one contributes to the economy by working in his own way.

        Agriculturist is a primary source of food. Once food needs are met then the shelters are provided. Once the shelters are provided there is need for healthy upbringing of the offspring. The mothers have to be taught how to feed and bringup their children. After early education in theinfancy and toddler ages, education outsidethe home has to be provided to the growing children.Not all people can engage in agricultureand farming. There is need for vocational training for citizens to work as masons, carpenters, painters, black-smiths etc. There is need for a large contingent of teachers to take up the teaching profession in schools and colleges.

        There is need for shops where people can buy food stuff and other items needed for a pleasant home.

        Rice is a grain obtained by growing rice plants. The rice plants die of themselves when the paddy is ready for harvesting. The paddy and the rice grain are not considered to be living organisms, although they have the potential to develop into a rice plant if the paddy seeds are sown again in the appropriate fields and provided water and daylight. Rice has been the most important vegetarian food through the ages. Wheat, jowar, maize, and other such cereals are all vegetarian food.

        Pulses such as Chana, Moong, Toor, Urad etc. are all vegetarian food without any doubt. Potatoes and other undergroundroot products are dormant stores of foodfor sprouting new plants growing on their surfaces. These are considered vegetarian food. But a number of Hindus consider root products including onions and garlicas forbidden food. This is commonamong many Braahmana families and certainly in the Mathas where Swami(s) reign.

        Food that is classified as 'Satwi'k is ideal and includes all grains and leafy vegetables. Food that is classified as 'Rajasik' is to be avoided for a healthier life and these are fruits like tomatoes, brinjal, ladies finger, cucumber, squash, pumpkins etc. All of these have life in them in some form of other but the notion is that they are not actually being killed when they are harvested and cooked to prepare them for meals.

        All vegetarian is green and potentially alive but they can not by themselves produce their offspring. They have seeds which when planted new crops would grow and similar fruits will be obtained. These are very important vegetable food items. The non-vegetarian food is 'Tamasika' meaning foul and forbidden. They include all kinds of meat, foul and fish.

        Water is an essential food item but it is a thirst-quencher. A large percentage of man's body weight is due to liquids such as blood. But every other organ has substantial amount of water in it. Is water a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian food? This question is not posted anywhere. Water is consumed by all living entities in the world.

        There are crores and crores of bacteria and other micro-organisms in the human body whether vegetarian or non-vegetarian. These bacteria are present on vegetables and also on fish, foul and meat. They are in the air we breath and many of them cause disease in our body.

        Jainism prohibits any action that might hurt even the bacteria that are known to exist in the air or in the food.

        Since the bacteria may be mobile andmultiply by division, it is not clear if theyshould be considered equal to living entitysuch as the bees and birds or animalsand man.

        Fish are considered animals like the birdsbut many communities that live onsea-shores and practice vegetarianism consider Fish as flowers grown in the water and consider eating fish as not breaking the rule of vegetarianism.


        Milk and milk products are genetically non-vegetarian since they are obtained from cows and buffaloes. There are people whoconsume goat milk, yak milk etc.

        But all these food items are considered free from any act of violence such as killing a chicken or slaughtering a cow for meat. Chicken and other domestic birds are forbidden for a strict vegetarian Braahmana.

        Meat of lamb, goats, sheep, cows, bulls, buffaloes etc. are also forbidden for a vegetarian.

        Therefore the world life survives on both animal and plant food since there are many large communities that regularly eat non-vegetarian meals. Non-vegetarian mealsare not purely meat, foul or fish but include all kinds of food such as leafy vegetables, potatoes, wheat breads, rice preparations, soups, salads, curries, sauces, milk andmilk products, and without any kind of restriction.

        Sea-food like caviar, lobsters, mussels, oysters, crabs, and even tortoises, whales, seals, and .sharks are expensive food items and therefore eaten as special delicacies by the rich and high class people.

        A Hindu Braahmana would not decide on his menu on the basis of the cost of a food item but only if it is 'Satwik' or not. Even 'Rajasik' food items might be considered for their meals but not the 'Tamasika' items even if they are projected as of high taste, expensive, and commonly eaten by the rich and royal folks.

The Sacred Cow: The cow is sacred to Hindus and killing cows is prohibited in Hinduism. Also Hindus do not eat cow-meat or beef on any account. Only a small percentage of people belonging to some tribes eat cow-meat but they do not kill cows for food. They butcher any dead carcass of a cow before it gets spoiled, or before any process of putrefaction begins in the dead animal.

        There are many reasons for this binding rule among Hindus. Majority of Hindu families have never had the occasion to kill cows for meat or hide.

        Although different kinds of hide were usedto prepare footwear worn by some sections of the people many Hindus walked barefoot up until the middle of the twentieth century.

        Use of footwear became popular whenhides of animals were used for the manufacture of chappals or sandals andalso office-goers' boots and these were accepted by educated sections of the population beginning from the middle ofthe twentieth century.

        No Hindu ever dreamt of purposely killing a cow for preparation of a dish containing cow-meat. There are no Hindu recipe in which beef is mentioned as one of the ingredients. A Hindu would rather die of hunger than kill a cow for food.

        When a Hindu, particularly a Brahmana goes abroad and encounters beef dishes on the table served as part of a dinner then the Hindu man or woman will not touch that dish let alone eat it. If at all he ate a beef dish then it will be because he was not aware that the dish contained beef. If he knew in advance that there is beef served in the party, then he will not attend such party. If it is necessary for him to attend the party for other reasons then he will attend the party but he will not sit at the table where beef is served, or if he sits he will avoid eating such dishes persistently keeping them away.

Sense of Defilement: Compounded with the religious dogma to abstain from cow-killing there is a state of defilement attached to this prohibition. A Brahmana will not even touch a Muslim because of the risk of getting defiled by this act since all Muslims either eat beef or take part inthe killing of cows for food.

        If a Brahmana has to come in contact with a Christian who is known to be using cow-meat at home then such Christian man or woman had to be kept at arm's length by a Brahmana. If a Brahmana touches such defiled person then he had to take a head-bath in order to get rid of the defilement. Such stringent rules are now relaxed sincecontact with Muslims and Christians has become more frequent in the present circumstances.

        The abstinence from cow-meat and killing cows has a very ancient history.

        Hinduism is a religion of the earliestWorld inhabitant and compares well withthe Sol religion of the Egyptians, the Greeks, Romans and the African nations.

        The Chinese Tao and the Japanese Zenreligions are somewhat akin to theseancient practices.

        These religions are truly secular since they have no one Book or one Prophet. These ancient people recognised the economic importance of animals and their ruling class such as the kings and generals as well as the Priests and Sages made hard and fast rules that goats, sheep, cattle and camels were not to be killed in any circumstancesfor food.

        This sense of wrong-doing got stuck as a sense of purity through-out the ages in every individual in those days. Any one who got associated with the act of killing an animal developed a sense of guilt and thus considered it to be defilement.

        The sense of Defilement is a sense that is similar to the one developed in a virgin girl when she is forced to lose her virginity. Often a rape victim commits suicide when her feeling of defilement is intense and unbearable, and when she finds herself powerless to make amends to the defilement such as by taking revenge on the perpetrator of the crime.

        A sense of defilement overcomes a woman during menstruation and after delivery. A woman wants to take a head bath after themenstrual cycle gets over. A sense of defilement forms in a man who has touched a dead body. A head-bath usually suffices toremove these senses of defilements. A dip in a river or lake is also sufficient to remove and revoke the defilement in most cases.

        The sense of defilement regarding cow-killing and cow-eating is ingrained in a Hindu conscience and is a part of hisgood character.

Cruelty to Animals: Apart from defilement, the Hindus generally abstain from cruelty to animals and since killing any animal is not easy for a Hindu there is hardly any occasion that a Hindu will deal in meat business.

        A Hindu who runs a restaurant frequented by Muslims and Christians will not cook any beef dishes to please his customers. He will gladly forgo the business of those customers who demand beef dishes in his hotel. He will limit his menu to other meats like mutton and even pork apart from chicken items. There are no Hindu cooks that will indulge in preparation of beef dishes.

        In India the Jains consider it cruel to hurt any animal, let alone kill it for food. A large percentage of Hindus also thinkon the same lines and detest killing animals for food.

        Especially Braahmana(s) andVeerashaiva(s) (followers of Lord Basavanna) do not eat meat, fish, or foul.

        There is no doubt that killing animals for food is cruel. But those who eat non-vegetarian food claim that animals are created for the human beings to eat. They also claim that if animals are not killed for food then there will not be enough vegetarian food for every one.

        Those Hindus who eat meat, fish or foul claim that they do not kill the animals themselves, and so the term cruel cannot be applied to them. They are not animal-killers; they are only animal eaters.

        Compassion is necessary for every human being and this is developed as a character among Hindus.

        Hindus are well-known as humble people. They suffer all kinds of cruelty themselves, but will refrain from causing even mental hurt to others. The sense of compassion comes to Hindus from their genetic origins and also from practices learnt at home from parents and guardians.

        For the parents there is a choice to either introduce their children to non-vegetarian food or not. In view of the cruelty aspect Hindu parents refrain from cooking non-vegetarian food at home.

        So long as the vegetable food is available in plenty in the market, eating non-vegetarian food could be avoided. We observe that the children of vegetarian parents grow up to be vegetarians. If the parents discourage their children from eating non-vegetarian food in the restaurants, in the parties they attend and in foreign countries they visit, then the children can maintain their Vegetarianism all their life.

        The children should be taught not to throw stones at dogs and cats to hurt them, but to only drive them away since they might bite them or otherwise cause injuries to them if they come too close. The dogs have a tendency to attack children even when the children do not bother the dogs. This tendency is stronger if the child looks at the dog in its eyes. The same dog will not attack an adult human being. A domestic dog also attacks a child.

        The dog lovers however do not agree withthis. They claim that the dog is the friendliestof the domestic animals and most loyalto the master. What the dog lovers say might be true in the case of some pedigree dogs. We must treat all dogs with compassion by not hurting them with stones, sticks or missiles, and similarly we must treat all animals and birds with compassion.

        In early twentieth century, a bowl of waterwas left outside the house for birds to drinkin summer. A large tub with water waskept at roadsides for passing bullock cartsto stop and let the bullocks drink to their heart's content.

        Healthy FoodWhat is healthy food? Science has revealed that proteins are needed for proper development of mind and body. However, there is a misconception that the proteins in meat, foul and fish are superior to the proteins present in cereals, pulses and some vegetables.

        There is also a lobby that promotes non-vegetarian food by constantly and repeatedly advertising that without some kind of non-vegetarian food a child will become weak and catch cold often. Even educated people accept the misleading information given in the advertisements. It is an established fact that a wrestler who never took meat, foul or fish could defeat an opponent who was fed on meat all his life. Vegetarian students have scored high marks in all kinds of school and college examinations.

        Vegetarians can take milk and milk products as their protein-suppliers. Breast milk given by mothers to babies is obviously non-vegetarian but it is completely non-violent in nature. Cow milk is available for older children and adults.

        Vegetarian food has less fat in them than in the non-vegetarian food. Fat is supposed to cause thickening of arteries. Thickened arteries get blocked with clots easily. The arteries of the brain might get blocked and lead to stroke and paralysis.

        The arteries of the heart might get blocked and produce damages to the heart. Thickened arteries therefore can cause a heart attack. Heart attack may result in death. Thickening of the arteries occurs in many other conditions and not just in non-vegetarian diet. Diabetes is a major cause for thickening of the arteries. Those who suffer from diabetes must refrain from eating fatty food. Fish and foul have slightly more fat than what is present in vegetables. Beef and pork have a large percentage of fat in them. Oil contains fat of different varieties. Coconut oil has both saturated as well as non-saturated fat in it. But coconut kernel has ingredients that reduce formation of harmful fats. Other oils have different levels of fat in them.

        But since fat is necessary for goodhealth we can not completely keep oilsaway from our diets. Hydrogenated oilslike the Vanaspathi have plenty of harmful fats in them. Some of the oils have more poly-unsaturated fats in them. The poly-unsaturated fats are safer than the saturated fats such as are found in the hydrogenated oils. Therefore it is but natural that in spite of being a vegetarian, if a man consumes more saturated fats then his vegetarian diet will not prevent the harmful effects of his diet on his health. But if meat is consumed in large quantities then it is equally harmful.

Use of Bullocks in hauling and transportation: For millions of years the people of the world have been using the wheel for moving things from one place to another. The wheel is constructed indifferent sizes and from different materials. The commonest material used is wood. The skills of carpenter in making a wheelare very commendable because he has tomake a perfectly round structure. Two wheels are connected by an axle rod on which are balanced planks to make a platform. This platform is connected to a bullock by means of appropriate 'noga,' which is placed on the neck of the animal. There are certain disturbing aspects in using bullocks for hauling. There is some cruelty involved. First of all the bullock is castrated by squeezing the testicles of the male calf so that it does not become a rogue going after cows in seasonal heat. The bullock thus becomes a mellowed but strong animal.

        Secondly a 'noga' is placed on its neck and due to constant rubbing of this heavy item on the nape of its neck there is bound to develop swelling and pain to the animal. Yet man has not been thinking about these cruelties and develop a better and less painful method of harnessing a bullock to a cart through the ages.

        There were no motor cars or trains in India prior to 1850 and every merchandise was transported in hand carts or bullock carts. There were lengthy caravans of bullock carts which transported soldiers to battle fields or transported agriculture produce to markets.In construction of large temples and palaces bullock carts were used to transport granites and other building materials. The large single-stone domes of many temples and buildings were transported using bullock carts. But after motor cars, lorries and trucks as well as goods-trains came into usage the bullock carts fell into disuse. In the present fast traffic in the highways and city roads the slow moving bullock cart can be an obstacle or a hindrance. Bullocks can get killed or injured by accidents resulting from a dash of a truck or bus with a cart drawn by bulls or oxen.

        On the other hand bulls were used to plough the fields extensively all along the history of India. Although in some places like Rajasthan, camels are used to plough the fields, this is uncommon in rest of India. Horses are not suitable for this job inthe tropical countries. Therefore the Indian farmer entirely depended upon his pair of bullocks to do the hard work of ploughing thefields to grow his crop of paddy, or wheat or maize, etc. But now motorised ploughs have come into existence.Tractors are found to be more reliable and efficient than bullocks. Many farmers find it easier to maintain tractors than a pair of bullocks.

        Thus the economic importance of bullocks is receding but the importance of milch cow is on the upswing,

        We have not been able to find a substitute for milk and milk products which we can get only by keeping cows. Only cows that deliver a calf will give milk for a few months.

        Therefore it is necessary to impregnate cows using bulls. Even this has been replaced by collecting semen from the bulls and impregnating the cows by artificial means.

        Since the semen of a bull obtained in one ejaculation can be used in more than one cow it has become economical to extract semen from bulls separately and then apportion the semen and impregnate more than one cow. Also semen from good breeds of bulls can be obtained and stored and then transported to where it is needed to impregnate cows as desired in remote places. Semen from India can be taken to Brazil for example and impregnate their local breeds of cows to enhance their milk yield. Thus only for the sake of improving a particular objective both cows and bulls are now utilised by man. Animal husbandry is a vast science and research and development of cattle farming is an important responsibility ofthe people and the government.

Law to protect cows: India Code includes The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960., and the Constitution of India has an Article no. 48 relating to 'Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry' in which it states that 'the State shall take steps to prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.The Madhya Pradesh State government has passed a Law known as' Gau-Vansh Vadh Pratishedh (Samshodhan) Act which imposes penalties including imprisonmentup to 7 years. The matter of cow protection is a state subject. There are other stateslike Uttar Pradesh and Bihar that have passed Laws to prohibit slaughter of cows and its progeny.

        The Karnataka State government also passed a Cow protection law in 2009 but this Act was sent to the President of India by the Governor of Karnataka.

        Therefore the Law of the land is concerned with preservation and protection of Live-stock which includes cows andits progeny and not with either religious sentiments or with faith.If I sell my cattle to a well known slaughterer then I am responsible for cow-slaughter and not the slaughterer.

Summary: Goshala(s) must be set up in each village, town and cities to protect and improve the cows and its progeny. Gomala land may be given to various NGOs so that Goshala(s) may be built and fields formed to grow grass and fodder for the animals. To this end, the formation of the N. Venkatesh Kamath Trust will be highly appreciated.